• 🇬🇧 Scandium
  • 🇺🇦 Скандій
  • 🇨🇳 鈧
  • 🇳🇱 Scandium
  • 🇫🇷 Scandium
  • 🇩🇪 Scandium
  • 🇮🇱 סקנדיום
  • 🇮🇹 Scandio
  • 🇯🇵 スカンジウム
  • 🇵🇹 Escândio
  • 🇪🇸 Escandio
  • 🇸🇪 Skandium
  • 🇷🇺 Скандий

Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the shell structure is The ground state electronic configuration of neutral scandium is [Ar].3d1.4s2 and the term symbol of scandium is 2D3/2.

Scandium: description  

Scandium is a silvery-white metal which develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast upon exposure to air. It is relatively soft, and resembles yttrium and the rare-earth metals more than it resembles aluminium or titanium. Scandium reacts rapidly with many acids.

Scandium is apparently a much more abundant element in the sun and certain stars than on earth.

Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Scandium: physical properties

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Scandium: heat properties

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Scandium: atom sizes

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Scandium: electronegativities

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Scandium: orbital properties

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Scandium: abundances

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Scandium: crystal structure

Sc crystal structure
The solid state structure of scandium is: hcp (hexagonal close-packed).

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Scandium: biological data

Scandium has no biological role.

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Scandium: uses


Scandium: reactions

Reactions of scandium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Scandium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of scandium where known.

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Scandium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of scandium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Scandium: history

Scandium was discovered by Lars Fredrik Nilson in 1879 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Latin word "Scandia" meaning "Scandinavia".

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Scandium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of scandium
Isotope abundances of scandium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Scandium: isolation

Isolation: preparation of metallic samples of scandium is not normally necessary given that it is commercially avaialable. In practice littel scandium is produced. The mineral thortveitite contains 35-40% Sc2O3 is used to produce scandium metal but another important source is as a byproduct from uranium ore processing, even though these only contain 0.02% Sc2O3.