# Atomic orbitals: 4*d* radial distribution function

**Schematic plot of the 4 d radial distribution function r^{2}R_{4d}^{2}** (

*R*

_{4d}= radial wave function).

For 4*d*-orbitals, the radial distribution function is related to the product obtained by multiplying the square of the radial wave function *R*_{4d} by *r*^{2}. By definition, it is independent of direction.

In addition to two planar nodes (or two conical node in the case of the 4*d*_{z2} orbital), *d*-orbitals, display a number of radial nodes that separate the largest, outer, component from the inner components. The number of nodes is related to the principal quantum number, *n*. In general, the *nd* orbitals have (*n* - 3) radial nodes. Therefore, the 4*d*-orbitals each have (4 - 3) = 1 radial node, as shown in the above plot. Further radial nodes become evident in higher *d*-orbitals (5*d*, 6*d*, and 7*d*) but fewer nodes in lower *d*-orbitals (3*d*.

The Orbitron

^{TM}, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW: https://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/

Copyright 2002-2023 Prof. Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved.