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Atomic orbitals: 4p electron densitySchematic plot of the 4p_{x} electron density function ψ_{4px}^{2}. Blue represents negative values for the wave functions and red represents positive values. The "surface" of the orbital represents points for which the electron density for that orbital is the same  an isosurface. By choosing different values of electron density, denoted by the bar moving up and down on the line plot or by the moving plane on the surface plot, then the size of the threedimensional plot changes. This plot also shows that the magnitude of the electron density for the inner lobes is high so that if we choose a high threshold value (when the bar is high), then we only see one or two pairs of the inner lobes in the threedimensional plot. Only by moving the bar down sufficiently far does the main pair of outer lobes become visible. The plot above is labelled for the 4p_{x} orbital but the form of the plots for the 4p_{y} and 4p_{z} orbitals is similar, differing only in orientation. All values are of necessity not negative since the square of any real number cannot be less than zero.  

The Orbitron is a gallery of orbitals on the WWW The Orbitron^{TM}, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW, URL: http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/Copyright 20022015 Prof Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved. Document served: Friday 24th January, 2020 