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Atomic orbitals: 7g
For any atom, there are nine 7g orbitals. These orbitals are exotic in the sense that no elements are known in which the 7g orbitals are occupied in their ground states. However these orbitals may be populated in some excited states.
Follow the links towards the base of the page for information about individual orbitals.
The shapes of the nine 7g orbitals. From left to right: (top row) 7gz4, (next to top row) 7gz3x and 7gz3y, (middle row) 7gz2xy and 7gz2(x2 - y2), (next to bottom row) 7gzx3 and 7gzy3, (bottom row) 7gxy(x2-y2) and 7gx4 + y4. For each, the green zones are where the wave functions have negative values and the gold zones denote positive values.
In this set of 7g orbitals, there are five distinct shapes, each of which possess a number of planar and conical nodes. The 7g orbitals do not possess any radial nodes.
The 7gxy(x2-y2) and 7gx4 + y4 (bottom row in the image above) each have ten lobes and are related to each other by a 22.5° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital has four nodal planes, all of which include the z-axis. For the 7gxy(x2-y2) orbital, these planar nodes are the xz, yz, x=y and x=-y planes.
The 7gzx3 [an abbreviation for 7gxz(x2 - 3y2)] and 7gzy3 [an abbreviation for 7gyz(3x2 - y2)] orbitals (next to bottom row in the image above) each have twelve lobes and are related to each other by a 30° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital is partitioned by three nodal planes lying at 60° to each other, each lying along the z-axis, and a further nodal plane in the xy plane.
The 7gz2xy [an abbreviation for 7gxy(6z2 - x2 - y2)] and 7gz2(x2 - y2) [an abbreviation for 7g(x2 - y2)(6z2 - x2 - y2)] orbitals (middle row in the image above) each have twelve lobes and are related to each other by a 45° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital is partitioned by two nodal planes including the z-axis lying at 90° to each other, and a further conical nodal surface.
The 7gz3x and 7gz3y (next to top row in the image above) each have eight lobes and are related to each other by a 90° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital has a nodal xy plane, and a further nodal plane that includes the z-axis. Finally, each has conical nodal surfaces.
The 7gz4 (top orbital in the image above) has five lobes partitioned by conical nodal surfaces.
Links to 7g wave functions
Links to 7g electron density functions
Links to 7g electron "dot-density" functions
The Orbitron is a gallery of orbitals on the WWWThe OrbitronTM, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW, URL: http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/
Copyright 2002-2015 Prof Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved.
Document served: Wednesday 26th April, 2017