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Atomic orbitals: 6g

For any atom, there are nine 6g orbitals. These orbitals are exotic in the sense that no elements are known in which the 6g orbitals are occupied in their ground states. However these orbitals may be populated in some excited states.

Follow the links towards the base of the page for information about individual orbitals.

The shapes of the nine 6g orbitals. From left to right: (top row) 6gz4, (next to top row) 6gz3x and 6gz3y, (middle row) 6gz2xy and 6gz2(x2 - y2), (next to bottom row) 6gzx3 and 6gzy3, (bottom row) 6gxy(x2-y2) and 6gx4 + y4. For each, the gold zones are where the wave functions have negative values and the blue zones denote positive values.

In this set of 6g orbitals, there are five distinct shapes, each of which possess a number of planar and conical nodes. The 6g orbitals do not possess any radial nodes.

The 6gxy(x2-y2) and 6gx4 + y4 (bottom row in the image above) each have ten lobes and are related to each other by a 22.5° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital has four nodal planes, all of which include the z-axis. For the 6gxy(x2-y2) orbital, these planar nodes are the xz, yz, x=y and x=-y planes.

The 6gzx3 [an abbreviation for 6gxz(x2 - 3y2)] and 6gzy3 [an abbreviation for 6gyz(3x2 - y2)] orbitals (next to bottom row in the image above) each have twelve lobes and are related to each other by a 30° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital is partitioned by three nodal planes lying at 60° to each other, each lying along the z-axis, and a further nodal plane in the xy plane.

The 6gz2xy [an abbreviation for 6gxy(6z2 - x2 - y2)] and 6gz2(x2 - y2) [an abbreviation for 6g(x2 - y2)(6z2 - x2 - y2)] orbitals (middle row in the image above) each have twelve lobes and are related to each other by a 45° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital is partitioned by two nodal planes including the z-axis lying at 90° to each other, and a further conical nodal surface.

The 6gz3x and 6gz3y (next to top row in the image above) each have eight lobes and are related to each other by a 90° rotation about the z-axis. Each orbital has a nodal xy plane, and a further nodal plane that includes the z-axis. Finally, each has conical nodal surfaces.

The 6gz4 (top orbital in the image above) has five lobes partitioned by conical nodal surfaces.

Links to 6g wave functions

Links to 6g electron density functions

Links to 6g electron "dot-density" functions

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The Orbitron is a gallery of orbitals on the WWW

The OrbitronTM, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW, URL: http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/
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Document served: Monday 29th May, 2017