The following were useful for the production of The Orbitron
- L. Pauling and E.B. Wilson in Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, 1935.
- D.F. Shriver and P.W. Atkins in Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edition, Oxford, 1999.
- K.F. Purcell and J.C. Kotz in Inorganic Chemistry, Holt-Saunders, 1977.
- "The Shape of the f-orbitals", H.G. Friedman, G.R. Choppin, and D.G. Feuerbacher, J. Chem. Ed., 1964, 41, 354-358.
- "Geometry of the f-orbitals", C. Becker, J. Chem. Ed., 1964, 41, 358-360.
- Graphics for Electron Orbitals. By David Harrington at the Maple Application Centre, Waterloo, Canada. A useful listing of equations here for use with Maple, and a good reference page anyway.
Orbitals on the WWW
There are lots of good sites out there to do with orbitals. Here are just a few:
- Orbital Central. Good stuff here, including views of many orbitals including g-orbitals and higher! A few animations as well. Also includes an orbital viewer program (only for Windows 3.x, Windows95, and WindowsNT though).
- Atom in a box (student winner in Computers In Physics' Ninth Annual Software Contest). Real-Time Visualization of the Quantum Mechanical Atomic Orbitals. A scientific and educational program that aids in visualizing the Hydrogenic atomic orbitals - Macintosh required.
- Orbital tutorial. These animated orbitals are the angular part of the wave functions for the discrete stationary states of a one-electron atom. By Jim Holler at the University of Kentucky in the USA
- Orbital tutorial. A tutorial on orbitals from Colby College in the USA - requires Shockwave.
- Orbital tutorial. Some renderings of the real ('Cartesian') representations of the atomic orbitals of a one electron atom by Angel Cagandahan de Dios at the University of Florida in the USA
- Atomic Orbitals. Some isosurface plots of atomic orbitals requiring Chime from the University of Purdue in the USA
- Atomic Orbitals. Some electron density plots of atomic orbitals requiring Chime from the University of Southern California in the USA. These were calculated using Perl (as opposed to HyperCard which I used here).
- Atomic Orbitals. Here the shapes of atomic orbitals are illustrated by placing atoms so that they represent isosurfaces of atomic orbitals. This requires Chime and is from Carleton University in the USA.
- Atomic Orbitals. Here the shapes of atomic orbitals are illustrated by placing atoms so that they represent isosurfaces of atomic orbitals. This requires Chime and is from Arizona University in the USA.
- Atomic Orbitals. Here the QuickTime animations of atomic orbitals represented by isosurfaces. These may have been ray-traced? This requires Chime and is from Washington University in St. Louis in the USA.
- Atomic Structure. By Steve Cook at Imperial College in the UK. Has several atomic and hybrid orbitals viewable using Jmol. This is from Ohio State University in the USA.
- Orbital.exe. ORBITAL.EXE is a Visual Basic 6 program that runs under Microsoft Windows and allows the production of probability-based three-dimensional representations of the atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom, displaying them using Jmol. This is by Bob Hanson from St Olaf College in the USA.
- The Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals. Pages to help you understand and visualize atomic orbitals that makes use of VRML images in addition to Jmol. This is from Ohio State University in the USA.