You are at: University of Sheffield » Chemistry » Mark Winter » Orbitron (atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals) 
WebElements  Chemdex  Chemputer 


Atomic orbitals: 7gFor any atom, there are nine 7g orbitals. These orbitals are exotic in the sense that no elements are known in which the 7g orbitals are occupied in their ground states. However these orbitals may be populated in some excited states. Follow the links towards the base of the page for information about individual orbitals. The shapes of the nine 7g orbitals. From left to right: (top row) 7g_{z4}, (next to top row) 7g_{z3x} and 7g_{z3y}, (middle row) 7g_{z2xy} and 7g_{z2(x2  y2)}, (next to bottom row) 7g_{zx3} and 7g_{zy3}, (bottom row) 7g_{xy(x2y2)} and 7g_{x4 + y4}. For each, the green zones are where the wave functions have negative values and the gold zones denote positive values. In this set of 7g orbitals, there are five distinct shapes, each of which possess a number of planar and conical nodes. The 7g orbitals do not possess any radial nodes. The 7g_{xy(x2y2)} and 7g_{x4 + y4} (bottom row in the image above) each have ten lobes and are related to each other by a 22.5° rotation about the zaxis. Each orbital has four nodal planes, all of which include the zaxis. For the 7g_{xy(x2y2)} orbital, these planar nodes are the xz, yz, x=y and x=y planes. The 7g_{zx3} [an abbreviation for 7g_{xz(x2  3y2)}] and 7g_{zy3} [an abbreviation for 7g_{yz(3x2  y2)}] orbitals (next to bottom row in the image above) each have twelve lobes and are related to each other by a 30° rotation about the zaxis. Each orbital is partitioned by three nodal planes lying at 60° to each other, each lying along the zaxis, and a further nodal plane in the xy plane. The 7g_{z2xy} [an abbreviation for 7g_{xy(6z2  x2  y2)}] and 7g_{z2(x2  y2)} [an abbreviation for 7g_{(x2  y2)(6z2  x2  y2)}] orbitals (middle row in the image above) each have twelve lobes and are related to each other by a 45° rotation about the zaxis. Each orbital is partitioned by two nodal planes including the zaxis lying at 90° to each other, and a further conical nodal surface. The 7g_{z3x} and 7g_{z3y} (next to top row in the image above) each have eight lobes and are related to each other by a 90° rotation about the zaxis. Each orbital has a nodal xy plane, and a further nodal plane that includes the zaxis. Finally, each has conical nodal surfaces. The 7g_{z4} (top orbital in the image above) has five lobes partitioned by conical nodal surfaces. Links to 7g wave functions
Links to 7g electron density functions
Links to 7g electron "dotdensity" functions  

The Orbitron is a gallery of orbitals on the WWW The Orbitron^{TM}, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW, URL: http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/Copyright 20022015 Prof Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved. Document served: Tuesday 23rd October, 2018 