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Atomic orbitals: 7d
For any atom, there are five 7d orbitals. These orbitals are exotic in the sense that no elements are known in which the 7d orbitals are occupied in their ground states. However these orbitals may be populated in some excited states.
The shape of the five 7d orbitals. From left to right: (top row) 7dx2-y2 and 7dz2 (bottom row) 7dxy, 7dxz, and 7dyz. For each, the blue zones are where the wave functions have negative values and the pink zones denote positive values.
For each atom, there are five 7d orbitals. These are labelled 7dxy, 7dxz, 7dyz, 7dx2-y2 and 7dz2. Four of these functions have the same shape but are aligned differently in space. The fifth function (7dz2) has a different shape.
Each 7dxy, 7dxz, 7dyz, and 7dx2-y2 orbital has 20 lobes. There are two planar node normal to the axis of the orbital (so the 7dxy orbital has yz and xz nodal planes, for instance). The 7dz2 orbital is a little different and has two conical nodes. In addition, apart from the planar nodes, all five orbitals have four spherical nodes that partitions off the small inner lobes.
The origin of the planar nodes becomes clear if we examine the wave equation which, for instance, includes an xy term in the case of the 7dxy orbital. Clearly when either x = 0 or y = 0, then we must have a node, and this by definition is the case for the yz and a xz planes.
The Orbitron is a gallery of orbitals on the WWWThe OrbitronTM, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW, URL: http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/
Copyright 2002-2015 Prof Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved.
Document served: Monday 14th October, 2019