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Atomic orbitals: 4s radial distribution function
Schematic plot of the 4s radial distribution function 4πr^{2}ψ_{4s}^{2}. Blue represents regions within which the wave function is negative and red represents regions where the wave function is positive. For sorbitals, the radial distribution function is given by multiplying the electron density by 4πr^{2}. By definition, it is independent of direction. In the case of sorbitals, there are a number of radial nodes that separate the largest, outer, component from the inner components. The number of nodes is related to the principal quantum number, n. The ns orbital has (n1) radial nodes, so the 4sorbital has (41) = 3 nodes, as shown in the above plot.  

The Orbitron is a gallery of orbitals on the WWW The Orbitron^{TM}, a gallery of orbitals on the WWW, URL: http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/Copyright 20022015 Prof Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield]. All rights reserved. Document served: Tuesday 7th July, 2020 