Atomic orbitals: 4d equations
The symbols used in the following are:
 r = radius expressed in atomic units (1 Bohr radius = 52.9 pm)
 π = 3.14159 approximately
 e = 2.71828 approximately
 Z = effective nuclear charge for that orbital in that atom.
 ρ = 2Zr/n where n is the principal quantum number (4 for the 4d orbitals)
Table of equations for the 4d orbitals.
Function 
Equation 
Radial wave function, R_{4d} 
= (1/96√5) × (6  ρ)ρ^{2} × Z^{3/2} × e^{ρ/2} 
Angular wave functions: 

Y_{4dxy} 
= √(60/4)xy/r^{2} × (1/4π)^{1/2} 
Y_{4dxz} 
= √(60/4)xz/r^{2} × (1/4π)^{1/2} 
Y_{4dyz} 
= √(60/4)yz/r^{2} × (1/4π)^{1/2} 
Y_{4dx2y2} 
= √(15/4)(x^{2}  y^{2})/r^{2} × (1/4π)^{1/2} 
Y_{4dz2} 
= √(5/4){2z^{2}(x^{2} + y^{2})}/r^{2} × (1/4π)^{1/2} 
Wave functions: 

ψ_{4dxy} 
= R_{4d} × Y_{4dxy} 
ψ_{4dxz} 
= R_{4d} × Y_{4dxz} 
ψ_{4dyz} 
= R_{4d} × Y_{4dyz} 
ψ_{4dx2y2} 
= R_{4d} × Y_{4dx2y2} 
ψ_{4dz2} 
= R_{4d} × Y_{4dz2} 
Electron density 
= ψ_{4d}^{2} 
Radial distribution function 
= r^{2}R_{4d}^{2} 
There are five real 4d orbitals. The radial equations for all the 4d orbitals are the same. The real angular functions differ for each and these are listed above.
Each of the orbitals is named for the expression based upon x, y, and z in the angular wave function, but the "4d_{2z2x2y2}" orbital is abbreviated to 4d_{z2} for simplicity.
For sorbitals the radial distribution function is given by 4πr^{2}ψ^{2}, but for nonspherical orbitals (where the orbital angular momentum quantum number l > 0) the expression is as above. See D.F. Shriver and P.W. Atkins, Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd edition, Oxford, 1999, page 15.
